The foot is one of the most complex areas of the body; each vital for the adequate movement of the lower limbs.
Perhaps one of the most talked about joints, the Subtalar joint, allows the foot to tilt medially and laterally helping it adjust to uneven terrain.
The average range of motion (ROM) for this joint is widely accepted as being between 10 degrees (calcaneovalgus) to 20 degrees (calcaneovarus).
Part of the Transverse Tarsal joint, the Talonavicular joint, in conjunction with the Calcaneocuboid joint facilitates an enormous amount of movement in the form of triplanar motions of supination and pronation between the hindfoot and forefoot especially on rough surfaces.
The first Metatarsophalangeal (MTP) is of prime importance due to its weightbearing capacity from the stance to the toe-off phase.
Performing a ginglymoarthrodial action, the gait cycle at the time of toe-off would require at least 65 degrees of dorsiflexion relative to the ground surface, but a value up to 65-100 degrees could also be considered optimal.
The uniaxial Interphalangeal (IP) joints permit only the actions of flexion and extension.
Acting as hinge joints, the acceptable range of degrees for IP flexion of the hallux is from 0-90; the Proximal Interphalangeal (PIP) joint varies from 0-35 degrees and the Distal Interphalangeal (DIP) joint flexion from 0-60 degrees**.
The uniqueness of MASS4D® orthotics lies in its integrated multi-axial approach™ to solving patients’ problems; by providing for the full functionality of the foot, our orthotics enhance the mobility of all 33 joints in the foot thereby achieving optimal biomechanical efficiency.
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