Foot posture was assessed by measuring the Foot Posture Index (FPI) with the subjects barefoot, in a standing position.
The FPI consists of the following six items: 1) talar head palpation; 2) symmetry of supra and infra lateral malleolar curvature; 3) inversion/eversion of the calcaneus; 4) prominence in the region of the talus-scaphoid joint; 5) height of the medial longitudinal arch; 6) abduction/adduction of the forefoot.
For the whole sample, the mean FPI obtained was 3.77 (SD 2.93) points for the right foot and 3.87 (SD 2.92) points for the left foot.
By gender, the average values for the right foot were slightly higher in the boys than in the girls, with values of 3.93 (SD 2.99) versus 3.61 (SD 2.86) respectively.
The FPI values were distributed into percentiles, as a continuous variable.
The 50th percentile was 4 points for both genders and for both feet, except for the right foot among the girls, which was slightly lower, at 3 points.
The 85th percentile, which represents the boundary between the normal and the pronated foot among children, was 6 points uniformly among the subjects.
The study established that as a normative FPI value for the paediatric population, the 50th percentile (or 4 points) is recommended for children, of both genders, aged 6 years.
This value decreases with age to 3 FPI points for children, aged 11 years.
The pathological boundary can be considered as the 85th percentile for the pronated foot and the 4th percentile for the supinated foot.
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