A national cross-sectional study was undertaken in order to assess the prevalence of back pain in school children, as well as its association with school bags.
This study took a national representative sample of school children in the Maltese Islands (Malta and the sister Island Gozo) from all education providers, namely, state schools, church-run schools and independent private schools.
The target population identified for this study were students in the last two grades of primary school and first three grades of secondary school, aged 8–13 years.
The interview included questions regarding bag type, how the bag is carried, the use of lockers, participation in sport, presence of back pain, pain location through the use of a body chart, pain intensity using a face pain scale–revised (FPS-R), frequency, and consequence of back pain.
The FPS-R was used as it provides a simplified tool to measure pain intensity in children; the scale has six facial expressions representing increasing pain.
The findings regarding bag weight to bodyweight ratios revealed that 71% of the participants carried a bag weight in excess of the recommended 10% of bodyweight.
The prevalence of back pain was higher among females, those carrying two or more bags and those carrying their bag on one shoulder.
Students in non-public school and those in secondary school had a higher prevalence of self-reported back pain.
The mean age, body mass index and percentage bag weight to bodyweight were also higher in students reporting back pain.
After adjusting for other factors, self-reported back pain in school children is independently linked to carrying heavy school bags.
The authors concluded that this link should be addressed to decrease the occurrence of back pain in this age group.
Copyright 2017 MASS4D® All rights reserved.
Rehabilitation of Your Foot and Lower Back Conditions.
Long Lasting Wear
Strong Foot Support
Easy to use
Handmade MASS4D® Quality
Sign up for free recommended foot exercises, stretching, medical news and everything good for your feet
Please have a a look at our medical reviews and clinical articles on everything about lower biomechanics.
You should always seek the advice of a physician or other qualified healthcare provider with any questions regarding personal health or medical conditions.
The content, products and services offered herein, are here to educate consumers on healthcare and medical issues that may affect their daily lives. Nothing in the content, products or services should be considered, or used as a substitute for, medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. This site and its services do not constitute the practice of any medical, nursing or other professional healthcare advice, diagnosis or treatment.
The marks "MASS4D" and the MASS4D logo are trademarks. The content and design of MASS4D.com is protected by U.S. and international copyright laws. You may not copy, reproduce, republish, upload, post, display, transmit or frame any of these materials without prior written consent from MASS4D®.
The content, products or services on this site should not be considered or used as a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and is not intended to provide individual medical advice. Included materials and conversations do not imply a personalised doctor-patient relationship.
Copyright and Intellectual property
MASS4D® is owned and operated by Scheibye General Trading LLC - Licence no: 853463
MASS4D® and Logo are registered trademarks of MASS4D Inc. All content, trademarks, artwork, and associated imagery are trademarks and/or copyright material of MASS4D® Inc.