The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of walking speed on foot kinematics in the frontal plane during gait and to verify whether this effect is modified when excessive pronation is induced with the use of medially inclined insoles.
Twenty-six healthy young adults with no history of lower-limb pain or injury were recruited for this purpose.
A three-dimensional motion analysis system with three cameras tracked the motion of the foot and shank during walking.
The participants walked on an electric treadmill with no inclination and under two different conditions defined by the type of shoe insole – flat and inclined.
For the flat insole condition, participants wore a pair of noninclined (flat) insoles.
A pair of 15 degrees medially inclined insoles was used to induce increases in foot pronation (inclined insole condition).
All of the participants showed significant increases in the mean magnitude of pronation when wearing the inclined insoles.
The magnitude of pronation increased with walking speed under the flat insole condition.
The mean magnitude of pronation reduced as walking speed increased using the inclined insoles; this could be related to the pattern of muscular forces generated by the plantar flexors at faster speeds.
Given that the magnitude of ground reaction force is expected to increase as walking speed increases, a reduction in mean pronation magnitude in the incline insole condition does imply some form of active control mechanism.
It is possible that individuals might use greater active control of foot motion at faster speeds in the presence of factors that induce excessive pronation, a strategy that could favour the development of musculoskeletal conditions.
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